Autosomal DNA Tools And Statistics

Filed under: DNA - 28 Nov 2012  | Spread the word !

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Autosomal DNA is a term in genetic genealogy that describes DNA inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome refers to any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. The results from autosomal DNA test shows the DNA passed down from both your mother and father. Additionally, these results also include your ancestry from all sides of the family.


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Nonetheless, it’s impossible to identify which part of the ancestry is from which relative. There are several autosomal DNA tools used:

  • DIYGenomics
  • Gedmatch
  • HirSearch
  • OpenSNP
  • Dienekes Euro DNA Calc
  • David Pike’s Tool
  • Interpretome
  • Promethease

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    Autosomal DNA statistics show the average amount of autosomal DNA shared with close relatives:

    - 25% grandfathers, grandmothers, aunts, uncles, half-siblings, double first cousins
    - 50% mother, father and siblings
    - 6.25% first cousins once removed
    - 12.5% first cousins
    - 3.125% second cousins, first cousins twice removed
    - 0.0488% fifth cousins
    - 0.781% third cousins
    - 0.195% fourth cousins
    - 0.0122% sixth cousins
    - 0.00305% seventh cousins
    - 0.000763% eighth cousins


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    Nevertheless, the percentages can vary in many cases. This test is also useful as it can confirm if certain individuals are a child’s parents or not. Even if a child usually inherits 50% of their DNA from each parent, he will not inherit exactly the same DNA as his sibling. Autosomal DNA tests are provided by 233andMe, Family Tree DNA, AncestryDNA and Genographic Project.

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Interesting Details About Autosomal DNA Testing

Filed under: Uncategorized - 13 Sep 2012  | Spread the word !

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Autosomal DNA testing is used to analyze portions of the DNA of an individual inherited from his parents. It determines ancestry and studies show that certain markers are found in higher or lower amounts in different ethnic populations.

There are two variables important to autosomal DNA testing:

1. inheritance patterns which cannot be determined retrospectively without testing several descendant lines;

2. determining population frequency for a particular marker and understanding its importance by comparing population genetics.


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Autosomal DNA testing is very useful, but many specialists claim that is still subjective and unreliable. Nevertheless, there are two types of autosomal DNA testing used for genetic genealogy such as:

  • codis markers – a standardised set of autosomal markers used for siblings and paternity testing. They are also used by police departments and forensic laboratories and to identify people individually. Codis markers can be interpreted in conjunction with Y-line and mitochondrial DNA for more complete results.
  • AIMs (Ancestry Informative Markers) are used to estimate the geographical origins of the ancestors of an individual. These markers also show in what proportion of ancestry is derived from each geographic region.


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These markers are useful for determining genome-wide distribution, informativeness and genotype reproducibility. Autosomal DNA testing is also great because it checks approximately a million pairs of locations in an individual’s autosomal DNA.

Who should you test?

If you will test an individual that is one generation older than you, perhaps you will find more interesting things. This happens because those identical segments tend to break down with each generation.

If you will test yourself, you will have find out matches from both sides of your family. If you will test your parents separately, you will better place unique matches on one side of your family.

Benefits

Autosomal DNA testing can be used to find relative connections and to determine ancestry. If you will test your parents, grandparents and other family members, you will narrow your potential matches.


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Accuracy

You also have to know that the accuracy of autosomal DNA testing decreases with each successive generation. An autosomal DNA testing will detect less accurately a relative if the distance of the relationship is large. For example, the accuracy rate for detecting a match with a 3rd cousin is about 90-98%, while with a 4th cousin is approximately of 45-50%.

If you are curious to find all these things, there are many companies that provide autosomal DNA testing. Before choosing one, be sure that it’s a reputable and reliable company.

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Autosomal DNA Testing For Genealogy

Filed under: DNA - 17 Jul 2012  | Spread the word !

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Every living organism is formed by cells. Cells include 46 packages of DNA, called chromosomes. So, DNA cells are structured into chromosomes. In the human body, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of chromosomes. Individuals have one pair of autosomes from each of their parents, who have them from their own parents.

Autosomal DNA is inherited by an individual from his ancestors. It includes a complex genetic record, the term actually being used to describe the DNA inherited from autosomal chromosomes. The autosomes that individuals inherit are actually formed by a random mixture of autosomes from all ancestors. All branches of ancestry contribute to autosomal DNA, this is why testing can be used to establish connections along any branch of a family tree.

Latest research in DNA testing for genealogy has lead to the discovery of a new form of autosomal DNA testing, which checks all the 22 pairs of autosomes. Both men and women can undergo such a test.

However, a very important aspect about this test is that it only works for people who are closely related. This means that the chances of finding a match with a relative decreases starting with third cousins. As the distance on the relationship grows, the chances that such a test has to detect a relative are going to be much reduced. Parents and actually all type of relatives can be tested to find potential matches.

Even though the test can be used to search connections along any branch of a family tree, for a greater accuracy it is recommended to have other family members tested, too. This way the number of potential matches will be limited to the ones you are interested in.


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Close relatives commonly share larger fragments of DNA from common ancestors. However, the mean quantity of autosomal DNA shared with someone in the family decreases with every new generation. Percentages are established at:

  • 50% for parents and siblings
  • 25% for grandparents, aunts, uncles and half-siblings
  • 12.5% for first cousins
  • 3.125% for second cousins
  • 0.781 for third cousins.

Having these facts under consideration, statistics indicate that the accuracy of the autosomal DNA test is of 90 to 98 percent when detecting a match with a 3rd cousin and less than 45 to 50 percent when searching for a match with a fourth cousin.


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The test’s purpose is to look at a person’s genetic code and offer accurate information about genealogy and personal ancestry. For the test to be taken, a DNA sample must be provided. However, this is a simple and painless process. DNA is a nucleic acid which carries genetic information and samples can be collected easily by cheek-scraping, this actually being the most common procedure.

These tests can be taken in different companies, so check their offers in case you plan on having an autosomal DNA test.

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How Autosomal DNA Testing Works

Filed under: Uncategorized - 22 Feb 2012  | Spread the word !

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Autosomal DNA testing is something many people heard of, but most of them do not have enough information about genetics in order to fully understand it. If you are interested to find out more about autosomal DNA testing, you are on the right page. We are here to explain you everything about autosomal DNA testing and how is that helpful in a family.  It is easier through examples, so, let’s imagine a man named George. George is able to find a great amount of relatives with the help of autosomal DNA testing. How is that possible? George can track 5 generations – until his great-great-great grandparents. There are 32 people, meaning 16 couples. If not all, most of these 16 couples surely had children. Those children had children and their children, too, for five generations. This means George can have hundreds of cousins, because all the children of his generation, descendants of the original 16 couples are related to him.

If George is interested to find out more about his ancestors, he is able, thanks to the autosomal DNA testing. Or if George wants to see if two of his ancestors were brothers, it is not necessarily that they do a DNA test. And is also difficult if they are dead. The autosomal DNA testing can include two other members that are great-grandchildren of those. The autosomal DNA testing can reveal if these two have a second grade cousin relationship. If they do, this means the two persons mentioned really were brothers.

The autosomal DNA testing is considered a miracle by many and a great discovery of science by others. The truth is that autosomal DNA testing can solve a lot of problems in families where there in an important lack of genealogical information. With autosomal DNA testing, people can find more about their lineage than before, where the only relationship proven through classic DNA tests were those between mother and child or father and child. Autosomal DNA testing is useful even for adopted persons, helping them to find more about their background even if they have not traced the closest family members.

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DNA Testing – Autosomal

Filed under: Uncategorized - 28 Dec 2010  | Spread the word !

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Autosomal DNA testing can help establish lineage and answer questions that you may have about your genealogy. Many people have used this type of testing in the past to draw connections between themselves and distant members of their family from years ago. The evidence that you get from DNA testing can be confirmed with the use of public records which you can find online or in certain government buildings including public libraries. In order for autosomal DNA testing to work, samples from both parents are required. There are several different types of this testing and it is used by thousands of people all over the world for purposes of genealogy.

Codis markers are the first type of tests that are done and the second is called biogeographical ancestry, also commonly referred to as BGA testing. Typical Codis markers are used for establishing paternity. With this type of testing you will be able to find out where you came from and who your ancestors are. Over the last few decades these testing methods have involved into a sophisticated and exact science which is able to give a lot of information with just a little bit of DNA from the right people. Mitochondrial DNA is absolutely necessary for genealogical purposes and it is gathered from both parents; if you want to figure out who you came from, it will be necessary to run these tests from your own parent’s DNA.

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Autosomal DNA Genealogy

Filed under: Uncategorized - 25 May 2010  | Spread the word !

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Are you hoping to fill in the gaps of your ancestry with the help of Autosomal DNA genealogy? Truthfully, DNA testing used to determine genealogy can supply you with several forms of information. With genetic genealogy, you can get connected with members of your family who were living since the time that surnames began being used. Traditionally, DNA evidence can be confirmed with the help of genealogical records, bridging the divide for when genealogical records were nonexistent.

Autosomal DNA genealogy helps to get a complete view of the DNA puzzle. It fills in those blank spots by testing portions of the remainder of your DNA. Mitochondrial DNA and Yline DNA is extremely vital for genealogy since neither mixes DNA from the other parent and are passed on intact and pretty much unchanged from one generation to the next. With Autosomal DNA testing, the DNA of both parents is contributed. This, in effect, dilutes the DNA of each parent. Approximately fifty percent in each generation is diluted.

Currently there are two types of Autosomal DNA genealogy tests that are being used by genealogists. One is called Codis markers. The other is called biogeographical ancestry or BGA testing. With Autosomal Codis markers are typically used to test for paternity. On the other Autosomal biogeographical ancestry testing is used to test every one of your genetic contributions for a certain, proprietary markers that will indicate geographical heritage and not just the Yline or mitochondrial DNA. Here’s you shot at finding out who you are and where you came from. Let Autosomal DNA genealogy lead the way.

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Autosomal DNA Ancestry

Filed under: Uncategorized - 12 Apr 2010  | Spread the word !

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The benefits you’ll get from looking into autosomal DNA ancestry will be exception. But first, a word of introduction. Deoxyribonucleic acid better known as DNA references all the genetic material that is in a human beings cells. Your DNA pattern is unique to you. However, identical twins share the same DNA. DNA samples can be tested to prove the difference between people of the same species. When a DNA test is ordered, it checks if a certain sequence of DNA is absent or present. With recent technological advances, DNA testing makes it easy to find out a persons ancestry.

Anyone who has been adopted, autosomal DNA ancestry can help to answer questions about their family. You can trace your history as far back as you like. This ingenious research has led to a global discovery of genetic markers that are used in the evaluation of ancestry. Each marker follows three kinds of inheritance pattern categories. There’s the paternal DNA line, the autosomal DNA line, and the maternal DNA line. When researching the autosomal DNA line, you’ll find it’s made of all the DNA in your cells with the exception of the X and Y chromosomes and mtDNA.

To trace Autosomal DNA ancestry, you’ll look at Mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA which is passed on from mother to child. On the other hand, the Y chromosome marker is passed down from father to son. You inherit half of your autosomal DNA from your mother and the other from your father. Online you’ll find numerous home testing kits that can be used to collect DNA samples. With a few drops of blood or a gently cotton swab to the mouth, you can have the answers you seek by sending what you’ve collected to a lab for analysis.

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Autosomal DNA Testing

Filed under: Uncategorized - 09 Mar 2010  | Spread the word !

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In the information age people are fueling their needs to learn more about everything in new ways. Many people are combing through the internet to find information about a certain person or to track down what the best buy is while others are using the information to create a complete family tree. For the latter group of people there will be gaps and, often times, there will be many questions about their family’s origins that they won’t be able to answer using the tools that they can access online alone. In many cases they will need to have some sort of professional help to find out all of the answers they’re searching for.

One of the ways to collect this information is by having an Autosomal DNA test run. The Autosomal tests are designed so that someone can figure out what geographical area their ancestors came from. Autosomal tests use the matching of particular markers in the human genome with known markers from people of certain areas. In general this will give people an idea how they have passed through the evolutionary ladder.

Unfortunately, because this is such a broad-spectrum test there are no answers that one hundred percent definitive. Recently there have been questions raised about the validity of the tests by many scientists who have cited various reasons that they can be considered nullified. Nevertheless, these tests remain popular and are, most of the time, reasonably accurate about where someone’s ancestors may have traveled from in order to get where they are today. Even so, these tests, as with all things, are slowly being replaced with more reliable and specific testing methods that will likely replace them completely in a few years. As always, it is important to remember that, even with DNA testing, there can still be errors made and second tests may be necessary.

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Autosomal DNA Testing – What is It?

Filed under: Uncategorized - 26 Feb 2010  | Spread the word !

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Autosomal DNA testing is one of three types of DNA testing used to determine ancestry. The other two types of DNA testing in this category are mitochondrial and Y-chromosome.

For people who are interested in finding out more about their heritage, autosomal DNA testing can provide a way for them to gain this knowledge.

Although many people assume that DNA testing is extremely expensive and something that they won’t be able to afford, there are multiple companies that have made autosomal DNA testing affordable for normal people. Depending on the company that you choose and the specific style of test, you can have an autosomal DNA test completed for less than a couple hundred dollars. Given the amount of information that can be obtained from an autosomal DNA test, most people consider this price to be extremely reasonable.

To ensure that you pick a reliable autosomal DNA testing company, be sure to use the Internet to research the company’s reputation before making your final decision.

While autosomal DNA testing is a reliable form of DNA testing, it is important to understand that it does have some general limitations. Currently, autosomal DNA testing is only reliable for tracing back a couple of generations. However, scientists are working to increase its ability to provide accurate results through farther back generations.

Additionally, autosomal DNA testing does not have the ability to tell the percent of ancestry that is inherited. So, while autosomal DNA testing can tell someone that their heritage is composed of Portuguese and German, it can’t definitively say what percentage of their heritage is Portuguese and what percentage is German.

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Autosomal DNA Testing And What It Can Do For You

Filed under: Uncategorized - 29 Jan 2010  | Spread the word !

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In a nutshell, Autosomal DNA testing will analyze your chromosomes as a means of defining a relationship that can date back to your grandparent generation. Most of us have 23 pairs of chromosomes, totaling 46. With Autosomal DNA you’ll find that there are 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes detected in the nucleus. It gets passed on from both parents and bears the responsibility of controlling your physical traits such as facial characteristics and the color of your eyes.

The best part is that there is not one gender limitation with Autosomal DNA testing. If you’re like most folks, you’ve probably heard of the most popular type of Autosomal DNA test – the paternity test. There are a couple of ways Autosomal Testing can be observed. The first is basically used to test for paternity, maternity and siblings. There are a total of fifteen autosomal markers. The second Autosomal DNA Testing is more for informal paternity, maternity, and siblings tests. You’ll find a set of twenty-four autosomal makers.

In essence, it’s your DNA that Your DNA that maps out your family history. It’s passed down from both your mother and father, which they received from their parents, and so on and so forth. Inside your cells lie the key to your family genetics. It’s the window to your past. Scientists use Autosomal DNA Testing to learn as much as possible about our past. If you have questions about your past or concerns about your family ties, give yourself peace mind with Autosomal DNA Testing. It’s the key that will unlock the door that answers your questions.

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